Hylaeosaurus

Name: Hylaeosaurus ‭(‬forest lizard‭)‬.
Phonetic: Hy-lay-e-o-sore-us.
Named By: Gideon Mantell‭ ‬-‭ ‬1833.
Classification: Chordata,‭ ‬Reptilia,‭ ‬Dinosauria,‭ ‬Ornithischia,‭ ‬Thyreophora,‭ ‬Ankylosauria,‭ ‬Nodosauridae,‭ ‬Polacanthinae.
Species: H.‭ ‬armatus‭ (‬type‭)‬.
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: Uncertain,‭ ‬in the past Hylaeosaurus has been estimated at anything between‭ ‬3‭ ‬and‭ ‬7.6‭ ‬meters long.
Known locations: England.‭ ‬Furhter remains from Europe have been attributed to the genus,‭ ‬but many of these are now considered to be from other genera.
Time period: Velanginian of the Cretaceous.
Fossil representation: Partial remains.

       When Richard Owen first established the Dinosauria,‭ ‬and thus creating the term dinosaur in‭ ‬1842,‭ ‬Hylaeosaurus was one of the three genera used to establish the group‭ (‬the others were Megalosaurus and Iguanodon‭)‬.‭ ‬Several species of Hylaeosaurus have been named over the years,‭ ‬but the only species currently thought to be valid is the type genus H.‭ ‬armatus.
       Named in‭ ‬1833,‭ ‬Hylaeosaurus was the first genus of armoured ankylosaur dinosaur to ever be discovered,‭ ‬and was the third dinosaur genus to be named.‭ ‬Much of what it actually looked like is still unknown,‭ ‬but it can be expected to be a squat quadrupedal dinosaur,‭ ‬with a covering of bony plates and spikes down the back and sides.‭ ‬The exact arrangement of these however is still unknown,‭ ‬though it is not expected to have a single row of spines down the back as originally suggested by Gideon Mantell.
       Hylaeosaurus may have been a primitive nodosaur,‭ ‬though it is often regarded as a polacanthine.‭ ‬Because of this,‭ ‬Hylaeosaurus would not have had a tail club like in the later ankylosaurids.

Further reading
-‭ ‬The Geology of the South-East of England,‭ ‬Gideon Mantell‭ ‬-‭ ‬1833.
-‭ ‬Hylaeosaurus,‭ ‬Polacanthus,‭ ‬and the systematics and stratigraphy of Wealden armoured dinosaurs,‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Pereda-Suberbiola‭ ‬-‭ ‬1993.
-‭ ‬The first known femur of Hylaeosaurus armatus and reidentification of ornithopod material in The Natural History Museum,‭ ‬London,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬M.‭ ‬Barret‭ ‬1996.
-‭ ‬Skull of the polacanthid ankylosaur Hylaeosaurus armatus Mantell,‭ ‬1833,‭ ‬from the Lower Cretaceous of England,‭ ‬K.‭ ‬Carpenter‭ ‬-‭ ‬2001.



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