Name: Batyrosaurus ‭(‬Batyr lizard‭)‬.
Phonetic: ‭B‬at-e-r-o-sore-us.
Named By: Pascal Godefroit,‭ ‬François Escuillié,‭ ‬Yuri L.‭ ‬Bolotsky‭ & ‬Pascaline Lauters‭ ‬-‭ ‬2012.
Classification: Chordata,‭ ‬Reptilia,‭ ‬Dinosauria,‭ ‬Ornithischia,‭ ‬Ornithopoda,‭ ‬Hadrosauroidea.
Species: B.‭ ‬rozhdestvenskyi‭ (‬type‭)‬.
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: About‭ ‬5‭ ‬to‭ ‬6‭ ‬meters long.
Known locations: Kazakhstan‭ ‬-‭ ‬Bostobinskaya Formation.
Time period: Santonian/Campanian of the Cretaceous.
Fossil representation: Partial skull and post cranial skeleton.

       Batyrosaurus has been described as a basal hadrosauroid,‭ ‬the group of ornithopod dinosaurs that would give rise to the more derived hadrosaurids such as Edmontosaurus and Saurolophus towards the late Cretaceous.‭ ‬Compared to other hadrosauroids,‭ ‬the describers considered Batyrosaurus to be more advanced than Altirhinus,‭ ‬but more primitive than Probactrosaurus.
       In life Batyrosaurus would have been a primarily quadrupedal dinosaur,‭ ‬though one that had the option of rearing up on just its hind legs in order to reach taller plants.‭ ‬Batyrosaurus is known to have had a four centimetre long thumb claw,‭ ‬a feature that was common on iguanodont ornithopods such as Iguanodon that earlier in the Mesozoic gave rise to hadrosauroids like Batyrosaurus.‭ ‬Casts of the braincase of Batyrosaurus also reveal arterial impression on the bone that were left behind by arteries that were supplying the brain with oxygenated blood in life.‭ ‬This in turn indicates that the braincase of Batyrosaurus was only just large enough to accommodate the mass of the brain.‭ ‬Predatory threats to Batyrosaurus would have likely come from tyrannosaurs of the time,‭ ‬though dromaeosaurs would have also been a serious problem for smaller individuals and juveniles.
       There has been speculation that Batyrosaurus may actually be the same as Arstanosaurus,‭ ‬another dinosaur known from the same location.‭ ‬Arstanosaurus however has had a troubled taxonomic history,‭ ‬being considered to have been a hadrosaurid,‭ ‬ceratopsian and even a fossil chimaera‭ (‬remains of two or more animals described as one‭)‬.‭ ‬Because of the doubtful credibility of Arstanosaurus as a genus,‭ ‬the describers of the genus chose not to include the Batyrosaurus fossils with it.
       Batyrosaurus was named after the Batyr,‭ ‬Kazakh heroic warriors.‭ ‬The type species name is in honour of the Russian palaeontologist Anatoly Konstantinovich Rozhdestvensky.

Further reading
-‭ ‬A New Basal Hadrosauroid Dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Kazakhstan‭‬.‭ ‬In Godefroit,‭ ‬P.‭ (‬eds‭)‬.‭ ‬-‭ ‬Pascal Godefroit,‭ ‬François Escuillié,‭ ‬Yuri L.‭ ‬Bolotsky‭ & ‬Pascaline Lauters‭ ‬-‭ ‬2012.


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