(Before the end).
Named By: Ricahrd Owen - 1876.
Synonyms: Procolophon baini, Procolophon cuneiceps, Procolophon griersoni, Procolophon laticeps, Procolophon minor, Procolophon platyrhinus, Procolophon sphenorhinus.
Classification: Chordata, Reptilia, Procolophonomorpha, Procolophonidae.
Species: P. trigoniceps (type). Possibly also P. brasiliensis and P. pricei, though these have been considered to be synonyms to the type species.
Size: Up to about 30 centimetres long.
Known locations: Antarctica - Fremouw Formation, Brazil - Sanga do Cabral Formation, and South Africa - Katberg Formation, Normandien Formation.
Time period: Induan to Olenkian of the Triassic.
Fossil representation: Many individuals.
is the type genus of the Procolophonidae, a group of parareptiles
that first appeared in the Permian period and survived until at least
the late Triassic. Procolophonidae had a fairly squat body with short
but powerful limbs. This form is widely believed to have been that of
a burrowing lizard which either dug burrows to have a safe retreat from
predators, or perhaps dug down to feed upon the roots and tubers of
The rear of the skull of Procolophon is broad and formed so that it had a rough spikey appearance in life, a feature that is one of the signature features of the Procolophonidae. These growths may have been a form of predator defence or perhaps more simply there for the purpose of display. Later genera such as Hypsognathus would develop the spikes even further, again possibly for the purpose of inter-species recognition.
- On the remains of Procolophon in the Albany Museum - Robert Broom - 1903.
- Notes on the Localities of some type specimens of the Karroo Fossil Reptiles - Robert Broom - 1905.
- The Triassic Reptile Procolophon in Antarctica - E. H. Colbert & J. W. Kitching - 1979.
- Procolophon pricei sp. n., um novo réptil procolofonídeo do Triássico do Rio Grande do Sul - E. L. Lavina - 1983.
- Procolophon brasiliensis n. sp., a new procolophonid reptile from the Lower Triassic of southern Brazil - J. C. Cisneros & C. L. Schultz - 2002.
- New basal procolophonid reptile from the Katberg formation (Lower Triassic) of the South African Karoo - J. C. Cisneros - 2008.