Camptosaurus

Name: Camptosaurus ‭(‬Bent lizard‭)‬.
Phonetic: Camp-toe-sore-us.
Named By: Othniel Charles Marsh‭ ‬-‭ ‬1885.
Synonyms: Brachyrophus altarkansanus,‭ ‬Camptonotus dispar‭ ‬,‭ ‬Camptosaurus browni,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬medius,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬nanus,‭ ‬Symphyrophus musculosus.
Classification: Chordata,‭ ‬Reptilia,‭ ‬Dinosauria,‭ ‬Ornithischia,‭ ‬Ornithopoda.
Species: C.‭ ‬dispar (type).
Type: Herbivore.
Size: Average‭ ‬6‭ ‬meters long,‭ but ‬some larger individuals approached almost‭ ‬8‭ ‬meters long.
Known locations: USA.
Time period: Callovian to Oxfordian of the Jurassic.
Fossil representation: Several specimens are known.

       Once again the term‭ '‬wastebasket taxon‭' ‬looms like a spectre over another dinosaur.‭ ‬Many of the fossils that were once attributed to Camptosaurus have since been found to represent other dinosaurs,‭ ‬and this is especially true for the European species that were once assigned to Camptosaurus.‭ ‬Despite this reduction in species and geographic distribution,‭ ‬Camptosaurus is still reconstructed with confidence.‭
       Some of the above confusion came about because of similarities to other dinosaurs like Iguanodon,‭ ‬among which had a thumb spike,‭ ‬similar to that found on Camptosaurus.‭ ‬As a basal form Camptosaurus had powerfully built legs and may have spent much of its time and standard locomotion in a bipedal stance.‭ ‬Study of the fore limbs however do show weight bearing adaptations,‭ ‬suggesting that Camptosaurus was at least sometimes a low browser and supported itself in a quadrupedal fashion.‭ ‬The fingers however are not packed together and do have some dextrous movement to them.
       Camptosaurus had a large amount of teeth in its mouth and these often show signs of heavy wear.‭ ‬This suggests that Camptosaurus had to do a lot of chewing in order to process its food properly,‭ ‬and may‭ ‬have‭ ‬focused on plants too tough for other species to tackle.

Further reading
- Notice of new Jurassic reptiles - American Journal of Science and Arts 18: 501–505. - O. C. Marsh - 1879.
- Names of extinct reptiles - American Journal of Science 29: 169. - O. C. Marsh - 1885.
- The typical Ornithopoda of the American Jurassic - American Journal of Science. 3 48: 85–90. - O. C. Marsh - 1894.
- Osteology of the Jurassic reptile Camptosaurus, with a revision of the species of the genus, and descriptions of two new species - Proceedings of the United States National Museum 36: 197–332. - C. W. Gilmore - 1909.
- The ornithischian dinosaur Camptosaurus prestwichii from the Upper Jurassic of England - Palaeontology 23: 411–443. - P. M. Galton & H. P. Powell - 1980.
- A new species of Camptosaurus (Ornithopoda: Dinosauria) from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) of Dinosaur National Moument, Utah, and a biomechanical analysis of its forelimb - Annals of the Carnegie Museum 76: 227–263. - K. Carpenter & Y. Wilson - 2008.
- New Basal Iguanodonts from the Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah and the Evolution of Thumb-Spiked Dinosaurs - PLoS ONE 5 (11): e14075. - A. T. McDonald, J. I. Kirkland, D. D. DeBlieux, S. K. Madsen, J. Cavin, A. R. C. Milner & L. Panzarin - 2010.
- The taxonomy of species assigned to Camptosaurus (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda) - Zootaxa 2783: 52–68. - Andrew T. McDonald - 2011.



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