Dineobellator

Name: Dineobellator ‭(‬Diné warrior‭)‬.
Phonetic: Di-ne-o-bel-la-tor.
Named By: Steven E.‭ ‬Jasinski,‭ ‬Robert M.‭ ‬Sullivan‭ & ‬Peter Dodson‭ ‬-‭ ‬2020.
Classification: Chordata,‭ ‬Reptilia,‭ ‬Dinosauria,‭ ‬Saurischia,‭ ‬Theropoda,‭ ‬Dromaeosauridae.
Species: D.‭ ‬notohesperus‭ (‬type‭)‬.
Diet: Carnivore.
Size: Estimated about‭ ‬2.5‭ ‬to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Known locations: USA,‭ ‬New Mexico‭ ‬-‭ ‬Ojo Alamo Formation.
Time period: Maastrichtian of the Cretaceous.
Fossil representation: Partial skull bones.‭ ‬Also partial post cranial skeleton including humerus and ulna of arm as well as some hand bones.‭ ‬Femurs and partial remains of feet.‭ ‬Rib and a few caudal‭ (‬tail‭) ‬vertebrae.




       Dineobellator is a genus of dromaeosaurid dinosaur that lived in North America during the last stage of the Cretaceous.‭ ‬When compared to other dinosaurs,‭ ‬Dineobellator seems to have been on the way to developing some advanced specialisations,‭ ‬and shows greater range of motion in both hands and feet.‭ ‬Additionally there also seems to have been an increased gripping strength,‭ ‬as well as greater movement of the base of the tail‭ (‬the whole tail would have been stiffened by tendons in life and only moveable at the base‭)‬.‭ ‬All of these features suggest that Dineobellator might have been an exceptionally‭ ‬agile predatory dinosaur,‭ ‬even when compared to other dromaeosaurid dinosaurs.
       By the twenty-first century it was accepted that probably most if not all dromaeosaurid dinosaurs had feather coverings around all of their bodies.‭ ‬These were small almost hair-like down-like feathers across most of the body‭ (‬though the extremities such as feet,‭ ‬hands and head usually lack them‭) ‬and larger pennaceous‭ (‬vaned‭) ‬feathers growing from the arms,‭ ‬tail and sometimes legs.‭ ‬The presence and general arrangement of these feathers is illustrated in an ever growing body of evidence,‭ ‬usually by impressions in rocks that surround bones,‭ ‬but sometimes attachment points on the bones themselves.‭ ‬The ulna‭ (‬one of the forearm bones‭) ‬of Dineobellator clearly has what are known as quill knobs.‭ ‬These quill knobs are small raised bumps on the surface of the bone that would have served as attachment points for pennaceous feathers on the arms of Dineobellator.‭ ‬Other feathers such as hail-like down and further pennaceous feathers on the tail of Dineobellator would also be expected,‭ ‬as it would be incredibly unusual if they were not.
       Dineobellator lived in a very diverse ecosystem which included many kinds of dinosaurs such as ornithomimids,‭ ‬tyrannosaurs,‭ ‬troodonts,‭ ‬sauropods,‭ ‬ankylosaurs,‭ ‬ceratopsians and hadrosaurs,‭ ‬as well as the giant pterosaur Quetzalcoatlus.

Further reading
-‭ ‬New Dromaeosaurid Dinosaur‭ (‬Theropoda,‭ ‬Dromaeosauridae‭) ‬from New Mexico and Biodiversity of Dromaeosaurids at the end of the Cretaceous.‭ ‬-‭ ‬Scientific Reports.‭ ‬10‭ (‬1‭)‬.‭ ‬-‭ ‬Steven E.‭ ‬Jasinski,‭ ‬Robert M.‭ ‬Sullivan‭ & ‬Peter Dodson‭ ‬-‭ ‬2020.



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