Cetiosauriscus

Name: Cetiosauriscus ‭(‬whale-lizard-like‭).
Phonetic: Set-e-os-sore-is-kuss.
Named By: Friedrich von Huene‭ ‬-‭ ‬1927.
Synonyms: Ornithopsis leedsi‭? ‬Cetiosauriscus leedsi‭? ‬Cetiosaurus leedsi‭?‬.
Classification: Chordata,‭ ‬Reptilia,‭ ‬Dinosauria,‭ ‬Saurischia,‭ ‬Sauropoda,‭ ‬Eusauropoda.
Species: C.‭ ‬stewarti‭ (‬type‭)‬.
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: Estimated to be about‭ ‬15‭ ‬meters long.
Known locations: England.
Time period: Callovian of the Jurassic.
Fossil representation: Partial post cranial skeletal remains including parts of the limbs,‭ ‬vertebrae and pelvis.

       Cetiosauriscus is often confused with the similarly named Cetiosaurus,‭ ‬and this is no accident.‭ ‬The name Cetiosauriscus means‭ ‘‬whale-lizard-like‭’‬,‭ ‬a reference to Cetiosaurus which itself means‭ ‘‬whale-lizard‭’‬,‭ ‬so when Friedrich von Huene named the genus in‭ ‬1927,‭ ‬he was actually saying that Cetiosauriscus was similar to Cetiosaurus.‭ ‬When the genus was first named the type species of Cetiosauriscus was C.‭ ‬leedsi,‭ ‬however later studies cast doubt upon the validity of the type fossil material used to designate this species.‭ ‬In what was a landmark study for the Cetiosauriscus genus,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Charig named a new species of Cetiosauriscus as C.‭ ‬stewarti,‭ ‬based upon a partial post cranial skeleton‭ (‬BMNH R.3078‭) ‬found near the town of Peterborough.‭ ‬Noting that other species of Cetiosauriscus,‭ ‬including the type species were dubious on the grounds that the remains were fairly indistinct,‭ ‬Charig successfully petitioned the ICZN‭ (‬The body that governs the naming of animals‭) ‬to make Cetiosauriscus stewarti the genoholotype of Cetiosauriscus.‭ ‬What this means is that from now on all fossil material submitted to the Cetiosauriscus genus must now be compared to the fossils of C.‭ ‬stewarti and not C.‭ ‬leedsi before being added as new specimens.
       Although the basis of the name Cetiosauriscus means a similarity to Cetiosaurus‭ ‬von Huene himself noted that Cetiosauriscus had much longer vertebrae than those attributed to Cetiosaurus.‭ ‬Because of the length of these vertebrae,‭ ‬Cetiosauriscus has been identified as a possible diplodocid sauropod dinosaur‭ (‬similar to Diplodocus‭) ‬upon more than one occasion.‭ ‬The type fossil material of C.‭ ‬stewarti‭ (‬BMNH R.3078‭) ‬has even been reported as possibly containing the whiplash of the tail that is commonly associated with diplodocid sauropods.‭ ‬If the interpretation of Cetiosauriscus as a diplodocid is correct,‭ ‬then Cetiosauriscus may well represent one of if not the earliest appearance of a sauropod dinosaur.‭ ‬However a‭ ‬2007‭ ‬paper‭ (‬Naish‭ & ‬Martill‭) ‬cast some doubt upon the diplodocid interpretation,‭ ‬stating that the vertebrae of Cetiosauriscus are also similar to those of the mamenchisaurid sauropods‭ (‬similar to Mamenchisaurus‭)‬.

Further reading
-‭ ‬Sichtung der Grundlagen der jetzigen Kenntnis der Sauropoden‭ [‬Sorting through the basis of the current knowledge of sauropods‭]‬.‭ ‬-‭ ‬Eclogae Geologica Helveticae‭ ‬20:444-470‭ ‬-‭ ‬Friedrich von Huene‭ ‬-‭ ‬1927.
-‭ ‬A diplodocid sauropod from the Lower Cretaceous of England‭ ‬-‭ ‬A.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Charig‭ ‬-‭ ‬In Aspects of Vertebrate History:‭ ‬Essays in Honor of Edwin Harris Colbert.‭ ‬Flagstaff.‭ ‬-‭ ‬L.‭ ‬L.‭ ‬Jacobs‭ ‬-‭ ‬Museum of Northern Arizona Press.‭ ‬-‭ ‬1980.
-‭ ‬Case‭ ‬2876.‭ ‬Cetiosauriscus von Huene,‭ ‬1927‭ (‬Reptilia,‭ ‬Sauropodomorpha‭)‬:‭ ‬designation of C.‭ ‬stewarti Charig,‭ ‬1980‭ ‬as the type species.‭ ‬-‭ ‬Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature‭ ‬50‭ (‬4‭)‬:‭ ‬282-283.‭ ‬-‭ ‬A.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Charig‭ ‬-‭ ‬1993.
-‭ ‬The anatomy and taxonomy of Cetiosaurus‭ (‬Saurischia:‭ ‬Sauropoda‭) ‬from the Middle Jurassic of England.‭ ‬-‭ ‬Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology.‭ ‬23:‭ ‬208‭–‬231.‭ ‬-‭ ‬P.‭ ‬Upchurch‭ & ‬J.‭ ‬Martin‭ ‬-‭ ‬2003.
-‭ ‬Revision of Cetiosauriscus greppini–new results and perspectives.‭ ‬-‭ ‬Fifth Meeting of the European Association of Vertebrate Paleontologists Abstract Volume,‭ ‬Musée des Dinosaures,‭ ‬Espéraza,‭ ‬France.‭ ‬pp.‭ ‬57‭–‬58.‭ ‬-‭ ‬Daniela Schwarz,‭ ‬Christian Meyer‭ & ‬Oliver Wings‭ ‬-‭ ‬2007.
-‭ ‬Dinosaurs of Great Britain and the role of the Geological Society of London in their discovery:‭ ‬basal Dinosauria and Saurischia.‭ ‬-‭ ‬Journal of the Geological Society‭ (‬London‭)‬.‭ ‬164:‭ ‬493‭–‬510.‭ ‬-‭ ‬D.‭ ‬Naish‭ & ‬M.‭ ‬Martill‭ ‬-‭ ‬2007.



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