Cetiosaurus

Name: Cetiosaurus ‭(‬Whale lizard‭)‬.
Phonetic: Seet-e-oh-sore-us.
Named By: Richard Owen‭ ‬-‭ ‬1842.‭
Classification: Chordata,‭ ‬Reptilia,‭ ‬Dinosauria,‭ ‬Saurischia,‭ ‬Sauropodomorpha,‭ ‬Sauropoda,‭ ‬Cetiosauridae.
Species: C.‭ ‬brevis,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬longus,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬medius,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬mogrebiensis,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬oxoniensis.
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: Estimated around‭ ‬16‭ ‬meters long.
Known locations: England,‭ ‬France,‭ ‬Morocco.
Time period: Mid/Late Jurassic.
Fossil representation: Many individual specimens.

       One of the most common European sauropods of the Jurassic,‭ ‬Cetiosaurus is actually one of the most primitive.‭ ‬In more advanced sauropods the vertebrae are hollow as a weight saving feature,‭ ‬however Cetiosaurus has solid vertebrae which hint at its basal position in the evolution of sauropods.‭ ‬These solid vertebrae are similar to those of advanced whales that have solid vertebrae so that their spines can withstand the crushing pressures associated with very deep water.‭ ‬In a complete contrast to sauropod evolution,‭ ‬the primitive whale forms such as Basilosaurus had hollow vertebrae which are why they are thought to have roamed the upper depths.
       Returning back to sauropods,‭ ‬Cetiosaurus seems to have had a distribution that covered most of Western Europe all the way down to North Africa.‭ ‬At sixteen meters long Cetiosaurus was a small to medium sized sauropod,‭ ‬but as a mid-Jurassic genera go it was a giant,‭ ‬with larger sauropod dinosaurs such as Diplodocus and Brachiosaurus not appearing until the very last stages of the Jurassic.‭ ‬Despite the size however,‭ ‬Cetiosaurus could have been potential prey for large mid Jurassic theropods such as Megalosaurus and Dubreuillosaurus.
       Cetiosaurus is the type genus of the Cetiosauridae,‭ ‬and currently Cetiosaurus is thought to be related to Patagosaurus and Barapasaurus.

Further reading
- A description of a portion of the skeleton of the Cetiosaurus, a gigantic extinct saurian reptile occurring in the oolitic formations of different portions of England. - Proceedings of the Geological Society of London 3: 457–462. - Richard Owen - 1841.
- Monograph of the Mesozoic Reptilia, part 2: Monograph on the genus Cetiosaurus. - Palaeontolographical Society Monograph, 29: 27–43. - Richard Owen - 1875.
- On parts of skeleton of Cetiosaurus leedsi, a sauropodous dinosaur from the Oxford Clay of Peterborough. - Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1: 232–243 - A. S. Woodward - 1905.
- The Rutland Cetiosaurus: the anatomy and relationships of a Middle Jurassic British sauropod dinosaur. - Palaeontology 45 (6): 1049–1074. - P. Upchurch & J. Martin - 2002.
- The Anatomy and Taxonomy of Cetiosaurus (Saurischia, Sauropoda) from the Middle Jurassic of England. - Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology 23 (1): 208–231. - P. Upchurch & J. Martin - 2003.
- Case 3472: Cetiosaurus Owen, 1841 (Dinosauria, Sauropoda): proposed conservation of usage by designation of Cetiosaurus oxoniensis Phillips, 1871 as the type species. - Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 66 (1): 51–55. - P. Upchurch, J. Martin & M. Taylor - 2009.
- The sauropod dinosaur Cetiosaurus OWEN in the Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) of the Ardennes (NE France): insular, but not dwarf [Le sauropode dinosaurien Cetiosaurus OWEN dans le Bathonien (Jurassique Moyen) des Ardennes (NE France) : insulaire, mais pas nain]. - Carnets de Géologie, 2011: 149–161 - E. Buffetaut, B. Gibout, I. Launois & C. Delacroix - 2011.
- OPINION 2331 (Case 3472): Cetiosaurus Owen, 1841 (Dinosauria, Sauropoda): usage conserved by designation of Cetiosaurus oxoniensis Phillips, 1871 as the type species. - Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 71(1): 48-50 - International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature - 2014.



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