Name: Synthetoceras ‭(‬combined horn‭)‬.
Phonetic: Sin-fet-o-seh-ras
Named By: R.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Stirton‭ ‬-‭ ‬1932.
Classification: Chordata,‭ ‬Mammalia,‭ ‬Artiodactyla,‭ ‬Protoceratidae.
Species: S.‭ ‬davisorum‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬S.‭ ‬tricornatus.
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: Roughly about‭ ‬1.1‭ ‬meters tall at the shoulder.
Known locations: Mexico‭ ‬-‭ ‬Suchilquitongo Formation.‭ ‬USA,‭ ‬Alabama‭ ‬-‭ ‬Citronelle Formation,‭ ‬Florida‭ ‬-‭ ‬Alachua Formation,‭ ‬Nebraska‭ ‬-‭ ‬Valentine Formation,‭ ‬Texas‭ ‬-‭ ‬Goliad Formation.
Time period: Miocene.
Fossil representation: Partial remains of multiple individuals.

       Synthetoceras is one of the better known members of the Protoceratidae,‭ ‬and this is thanks to the head ornamentation of the males of this genus.‭ ‬Rising above the eyes and ears was a pair of horns that curved upwards forming a crescent shape when viewed from the front.‭ ‬Then things get a little different with a single much longer horn rising up from the front of the snout.‭ ‬As this horn rises it splits again to form a V shape towards the top.‭ ‬Seemingly this horn was only present upon males,‭ ‬and was almost certainly a display feature not just serving for species recognition but for impressing female Synthetoceras.‭ ‬The horn may have also been a way for rival males to determine who was stronger,‭ ‬and when that failed,‭ ‬perhaps even become a weapon when disputes turned violent.
       Like similar members of the Protoceratidae,‭ ‬Synthetoceras would have been a fairly nimble footed herbivore,‭ ‬relying upon staying alert and quick reflexes to remove itself from danger.‭ ‬Possible predatory threats to Synthetoceras could include certain false sabre toothed cats as well as bear dogs,‭ ‬though such predators would have needed to get in close for a successful ambush.

Further reading
-‭ ‬A New Genus of Artiodactyla From the Clarendon Lower Pliocene of Texas.‭ ‬University of California Publications.‭ ‬-‭ ‬Bulletin of the Department of Geological Sciences‭ ‬21‭(‬6‭)‬:147-168.‭ ‬-‭ ‬R.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Stirton‭ ‬-‭ ‬1932.
-‭ ‬Late Miocene mammals from the Mauvilla Local Fauna,‭ ‬Alabama.‭ ‬-‭ ‬Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History‭ ‬46‭(‬1‭)‬:1-28.‭ ‬-‭ ‬R.‭ ‬C.‭ ‬Hulbert‭ & ‬F.‭ ‬C.‭ ‬Whitmore‭ ‬-‭ ‬2006.


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