Name: Panoplosaurus ‭(‬Completely armoured lizard‭)‬.
Phonetic: Pan-op-lo-sore-us.
Named By: Lawrence M.‭ ‬Lambe‭ ‬-‭ ‬1919.
Classification: Chordata,‭ ‬Reptilia,‭ ‬Dinosauria,‭ ‬Ornithischia,‭ ‬Ankylosauria,‭ ‬Nodosauridae.
Species: P.‭ ‬mirus‭ (‬type‭)‬.
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: Roughly up to about‭ ‬7‭ ‬meters long.
Known locations: Canada,‭ ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Dinosaur Park Formation,‭ ‬Saskatchewan‭ ‬-‭ ‬Judith River Formation.‭ ‬USA,‭ ‬Montana‭ ‬-‭ ‬Bearpaw Shale Formation,‭ ‬New Mexico‭ ‬-‭ ‬Ojo Alamo Formation.
Time period: Campanian to Maastrichtian of the Cretaceous.
Fossil representation: Skulls and partial post cranial remains of several individuals.

       Panoplosaurus is one of the more famous of the North American nodosaurs,‭ ‬and a genus that lived during the‭ ‬later stages of the Cretaceous.‭ ‬Like with other nodosaurs,‭ ‬Panoplosaurus would have looked similar to an ankylosaur,‭ ‬though with a few key differences.‭ ‬The most obvious difference at a glance would have been the lack of a tail club‭; ‬instead the tail of Panoplosaurus would have terminated in a tapered point like so many other dinosaurs.‭ ‬Also like other nodosaurs,‭ ‬and unlike ankylosaurs,‭ ‬the snout and mouth of Panoplosaurus would have been relatively narrow,‭ ‬possibly indicating that Panoplosaurus was a selective browser of low growing plants.
       Like its nodosaur relatives,‭ ‬Panoplosaurus would have had heavy bony scutes running down the back and sides of the body.‭ ‬These scutes,‭ ‬technically known as osteoderms,‭ ‬would have acted like mail armour against the teeth and claws of predatory dinosaurs.‭ ‬However,‭ ‬one of the more common armoured choices of nodosaurs,‭ ‬the large shoulder spikes seen in some other genera,‭ ‬were absent in Panoplosaurus.‭ ‬This might suggest that the presence and arrangement of shoulder spikes in nodosaurs may have also served a display as well as a defensive purpose.‭ ‬With the absence of spikes,‭ ‬Panoplosaurus seem to have favoured the development of very large osteoderms that grew very close together on the neck.

Further reading
-‭ ‬Description of a new genus and species‭ (‬Panoplosaurus mirus‭) ‬of an armoured dinosaur from the Belly River Beds of Alberta.‭ ‬-‭ ‬Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada,‭ ‬series‭ ‬3‭ ‬13:39-50.‭ ‬-‭ ‬Lawrence M.‭ ‬Lambe‭ ‬-‭ ‬1919.
-‭ ‬A supplementary study of Panoplosaurus mirus.‭ ‬-‭ ‬Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada,‭ ‬Third Series‭ ‬4:‭ ‬93-102.‭ ‬-‭ ‬C.‭ ‬M.‭ ‬Sternberg‭ ‬-‭ ‬1921.
-‭ ‬Ankylosaur systematics:‭ ‬example using Panoplosaurus and Edmontonia‭ (‬Ankylosauria:‭ ‬Nodosauridae‭)‬,‭ ‬by K,‭ ‬Carpenter.‭ ‬-‭ ‬Dinosaur Systematics:‭ ‬Approaches and Perspectives.‭ ‬Cambridge University Press,‭ ‬Cambridge,‭ ‬pp.‭ ‬281-298‭ ‬-‭ ‬K.‭ ‬Carpenter‭ & ‬P.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Currie‭ (‬eds‭)‬.‭ ‬-‭ ‬1990.


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