Euchambersia

Name: Euchambersia.
Phonetic: Yew-cham-bers-e-ah.
Named By: Robert Broom‭ ‬-‭ ‬1931.
Classification: Chordata,‭ ‬Synapsida,‭ ‬Therapsida,‭ ‬Therocephalia,‭ ‬Akidnognathidae.
Species: E.‭ ‬mirabilis‭ (‬type‭)‬.
Diet: Carnivore.
Size: Unavailable.
Known locations: South Africa.
Time period: Late Permian.
Fossil representation: Partial remains.

       Euchambersia would have been an unassuming little therocephalian therapsid were it not for one thing‭; ‬it was possibly venomous.‭ ‬There are small recesses in the jaw behind each canine tooth,‭ ‬possibly to house venom glands.‭ ‬The canine teeth also have grooves running down their length in a similar way to what we can see in venomous snakes.‭ ‬The model here works upon the principal that the canine teeth puncture through the tough skin of a prey animal.‭ ‬This pressure squeezes the venom gland at the base of the tooth causing venom to squeeze out and down the grooves of the teeth,‭ ‬and into the flesh of the prey animal.‭ ‬If this assessment is‭ ‬correct then Euchambersia would have had an incredibly potent weapon for killing the herbivorous animals of the late Permian,‭ ‬many of which were physically bigger and more powerful than Euchambersia.
       In‭ ‬2015‭ ‬a new genus of therocephalian therapsid,‭ ‬Ichibengops,‭ ‬was also interpreted as having a venomous bite similar to Euchambersia.‭ ‬While this may not mean that all therocephalian therapsids were venomous,‭ ‬it does raise the prospect that venom was a weapon that may have been used across multiple genera.

Further reading
-‭ ‬On the biology of the Theromorphous reptile Euchambersia.‭ ‬-‭ ‬Annals and Magazine of Natural History:‭ ‬Series‭ ‬10‭ ‬Volume‭ ‬12,‭ ‬Issue‭ ‬67.‭ ‬-‭ ‬Francis Baron Nopcsa‭ ‬-‭ ‬1933.



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